According to research, regular exercise enhances blood glucose control, delays or prevents the onset of type 2 diabetes, and increases your body’s sensitivity to insulin, which combats insulin resistance.
In New Delhi, regular exercise or physical activity is a crucial component of managing type 2 diabetes. Studies demonstrating the value of exercise in managing diabetes were scarce until recently. Now, however, we can see that a tonne of research emphasizes how vital exercise is for effectively managing blood glucose levels.
According to research, regular exercise improves blood glucose regulation, delays or prevents the onset of type 2 diabetes and increases insulin sensitivity to combat insulin resistance.
Regular exercise also lowers bad LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, raises good HDL cholesterol, strengthens bones and muscles, lowers anxiety, and generally improves cardiovascular and blood pressure health.
What impact does exercise have on blood sugar levels?
The glycogen reserves are used as fuel in the early stages of the exercise. Additionally, as the body’s glycogen reserves deplete, the muscles take in more blood sugar and the free fatty acids released from adipose tissues.
When you repeat the physical activity, muscles can use your blood glucose without insulin intervention.
What kind of exercise aids in the management of diabetes?
It has been demonstrated that all types of exercise, including resistance training and aerobic exercise, can lower HbA1c levels in people with diabetes.
Both resistance training and aerobic exercise reduce insulin resistance but combining the two proved to be more effective than doing either separately. Following 12 or more weeks of training, a recent meta-analysis discovered that aerobic, resistance when combined with exercise and training were all linked to 0.67% lower HbA1c levels.
Therefore, those who have diabetes need to keep up a good exercise routine.
Diabetes resistance training
The muscles receive between 70 to 80 percent of the body’s glucose supply after a meal.
Better glucose uptake depends on keeping a healthy muscle mass. Thus, including resistance training in your workout routine becomes crucial.
Recent studies indicate that resistance training can help patients with Type 2 Diabetes, combat metabolic dysfunction. It also appears to effectively reduce metabolic risk factors in people with diabetes and enhance overall metabolic health. RT decreased HbA1c by 0.48 percent, according to a meta-analysis of 10 studies that included supervised resistance exercise.
Excessive post-exercise oxygen consumption is further increased by resistance exercise (EPOC). Following training, EPOC is associated with using fat as fuel, which is advantageous for weight loss.
Since resistance training seems to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, it may be helpful to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.
Cardiovascular exercise for diabetes
Moderate to vigorous levels of aerobic activity are significantly associated with reduced cardiovascular and overall mortality risks in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
Most research on the effects of exercise on glycemic indices in type 2 diabetes has focused on therapies involving aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise, which includes cycling, jogging, and walking, involves large muscle groups’ rhythmic and continuous movement. The most recent ADA recommendations state that daily individual aerobic activity sessions should ideally last at least 30 minutes and take place three to seven days a week.
It improved VO2max cardiac output results from moderate to vigorous (65–90% of maximum heart rate) aerobic exercise training, which is linked to significantly lower cardiovascular and overall mortality risk in type 2 diabetic patients.
Regular exercise lowers hbA1c and insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) encourages glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Increased mitochondrial density, insulin sensitivity, oxidative enzyme activity, blood vessel compliance and responsiveness, immune system activity, lung function, and cardiac output are all benefits of aerobic exercise.
While aerobic exercises are beneficial in and of themselves, combining them with resistance training is crucial for the best results.
What safety precautions should I observe before working out?
Before exercising, checking your blood sugar levels can help you better understand your body and begin to take the necessary precautions.
Your blood sugar levels may be too low to exercise safely if they are lower than 100 mg/dL. Before you start your workout, eat a quick snack with 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrates, such as an apple or banana (they digest quickly and give you more energy).
You’re in good shape if your blood sugar levels range from 100 to 250 mg/dL. For most people, this is a safe blood sugar range before exercise. Eat fruit before working out, even if you need more energy.
It is unsafe to exercise when your blood sugar is 250 mg/dL or higher because it is too high. Before engaging in any activity, speak with your doctor about blood sugar management and then heed their advice because exercise can occasionally cause blood sugar levels to spike even higher.
Exercise is crucial in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance, prediabetes, GDM, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related health problems. Therefore, it is essential to stick to a regular exercise schedule to manage diabetes and maintain healthy blood glucose levels.